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Effective Microorganisms (EM) originated in Japan in the 1980s. Its originator or developer was Prof Teruo Higa. As the name suggests, it makes use of microorganisms, mainly lactic acid bacteria, photosynthetic bacteria, yeast, filamentous fungi and ray fungi. These microorganisms are both aerobic and anaerobic and are not genetically-modified.

EM, like Biodynamics can be useful in many different ways on the farm, including improving soil health, as a pest repellent and prophylactic, in composting, and in animal feeds, animal health and hygiene, aquaculture, etc. Different EM cultures are used for agriculture, animal husbandry, aquaculture and for environmental protection.

EM concentrates are available as ready cultures known as EM 1 Stock Solution that have to be diluted and used. Supplies of the same are available from our Administrative Office – please write to to know more.

We offer training and consultancy services on effective microorganisms. To know more, please read the sections on consultancy and training and specialised areas of consultancy and training.